Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam: Catholic Church Music at
Everingham and Stonyhurst 1839-1914



On Tuesday, July 9th, 1839 Bishop Briggs, assisted by three other prelates (Bishops Carruthers, Murdoch and Gillis) and thirty-six other clergymen, consecrated a new chapel dedicated to St. Mary and Everilda at Everingham. It had been built by William Constable Maxwell (1804-76), tenth Lord Herries, in an Italianate style modelled on the Maison Dieu at Nîmes. The ceremony itself lasted seven hours. [1] FN

Everingham is a small village midway between Hull and York. It may thus seem strange that a chapel such as this should receive so much attention. The explanation is twofold. First there is the sheer size of the chapel itself, which is capable of holding about 400 people. It was so large that it stood outside Everingham house, where the Maxwells lived, although connected to it by a long corridor. There was also a school and, until 1865, a convent run by the Poor Clares. [2] St. Everilda's was meant to serve a large Catholic community spread over a wide area. Opened ten years after the Catholic Emancipation Act, it therefore stands midway between the semi-secret household chapels of recusant times and the fully public industrial Catholic parish. FN

Secondly there is the wealth and connections of the Maxwells (Table I). William Constable Maxwell was a Catholic nobleman of Scottish descent, and was sufficiently well-respected locally to become High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1833. His marriage to Marcia, daughter of Sir Edmund Vavasour, connected him with all the major 'Catholic families' in England; and, like many of them, he sent his sons to be educated at Stonyhurst, the great Jesuit boarding school in Lancashire. [3] It was easy, then, for him to attract not just four bishops, but the Rev. Cockshut, the President at Ampleforth and Richard Norris, twice Rector at Stonyhurst, who sang Mass during the consecration ceremony. FN

Maxwell used his connections to assemble formidable musical resources for the occasion. The choir was drawn from York Minster, the local Catholic chapel in York and members of the city's Choral Society. They were thus able to sing all seven penitential psalms and the Litany of the Saints during the consecration ceremony. During Mass the following day they sang Haydn's Mass No. 1, Hummel's motet Alma Virgo and C. H . Graun's Te Deum. The priest, Maxwell's chaplain the Rev. Matthew Newsham, intoned the rest of the Mass using Gregorian chant. After Vespers that afternoon an 'Halleluiah to the Father', taken from Beethoven's Mount of Olives oratorio, was performed. [4] FN

The Music

From the beginning music played an important part in the chapel. There still survives a large organ, containing two manuals and a pedal board, built by Charles Allen in 1837. For its day it was a large instrument. More importantly, at the Bar Convent in York there is an enormous stock of old music formerly belonging to the chapel. This was rescued by John Rowntree in the early 1980s when the family sold the house. Table II shows that it contains 178 publications (or 226 if you class items within three volumes produced by Novello separately). There are also six part books, all copied in the 1840s and 1850s, along with twenty other manuscript items. Unusually, the part books are copied out in full vocal score instead of just giving the individual line for each voice respectively. If the publications are broken down into individual compositions there are 93 Masses, 164 Litanies and 342 Motets, together with an undated late eighteenth-century volume containing 60 Anglican Chants by Matthew Camidge (Table IIIa). These figures do not include the contents of hymnals or of 'The Choir Manual', with some 642 items; but they do incorporate materials in substantial publications by Samuel Webbe and Gordon [5] (Table IIIb). Manuscript contents, amounting to 9 Masses, 15 motets and various other ephemera, are not included in these totals. FN

Listing publications and the compositions they contain only reveals the potential repertoire. To find out what was actually performed certain details require closer scrutiny (see Table IV). For instance, the early publication date of volumes by Webbe and Camidge suggests that they originally belonged to the previous chapel in Everingham house itself. [6] Manuscript copies, by definition, imply performance. So do a small select group of works dedicated to members of the Maxwell family. With other printed publications it is fairly safe to deduce that they were used if they are marked up and if several copies survive. By this test it is also possible to calculate the rough size of the choir. Multiple copies tend to appear in sets of 3-4 or 7-8. [7] This suggests that there was a small core of singers performing small-scale, often devotional, works at functions like Vespers or Benediction and, perhaps, at less important Sung Masses; and a larger group used for special High Masses. FN

The statistics reveal a fundamental 'change of gear' between the mid and late nineteenth century. It is not just that more Masses were sung; they were of a different sort, too, as works by composers like J. Edgar Turner, Charles Gounod, Albert Edmonds Tozer and, later, Richard Terry overlapped with, and to some extent superseded, a diet of Mozart and Haydn. [8] There is a more exclusive reliance on printed music, as distinct from the partial resort to manuscript copies characteristic of earlier periods. Above all there is a change of publishers (Table V). The dominant figures in the early and mid-nineteenth century had been Vincent and Joseph Alfred Novello. After 1880 they are replaced by Cary and Co. and, to a much lesser extent, by Burns and Oates. In this respect Everingham conformed with developments characteristic of the English Catholic world. FN

The Stonyhurst Connection

By any standard, all this musical activity puts Everingham in a big league. St. Everilda's in fact is one of a number of great Catholic chapels with really strong musical establishments. Examples include the Weld chapel at Lulworth (in Dorset), the Arundell chapel at Wardour Castle (in Wiltshire), and the Petre establishment at Ingatestone (in Essex). All three families, especially the first two, had long-standing connections with Stonyhurst. It was Thomas Weld who gave the house to the Society of Jesus; and in 1834 James Everard, Tenth Lord Arundell, left his great library to the College. [9] Maxwell, himself an old boy, sent all his sons, and those of his butler, to be educated there. Musically, what went on at this establishment cannot have failed to have left its mark. As the largest and most important Catholic school in the country Stonyhurst is the link connecting – and inspiring – music in a whole nexus of aristocratic Catholic households and their chapels. Everingham is just one spectacular example of this. [10] FN

Stonyhurst's musical establishment at that time was formidable. In addition to the main choir there seems to have been what was termed as a 'Congregational Choir' and, reading back from descriptions at the end of the century, a smaller Vesper Choir which possibly overlapped with the activities of the Sodality. The College recruited not just from the boys and the teaching staff but also, on occasion, used students from its Seminary at St. Mary's Hall. [11] Table VI shows how many nineteenth-century publications and compositions still survive in the music basement despite many purges. Their accumulation seems to have been conditioned by building work. The College came to Stonyhurst from the Continent in 1794; piecemeal refurbishment of the building was followed by major extensions in 1808-11; and in 1835 the great church, dedicated to St. Peter, was opened. [12] In terms of surviving publications the first steps seem to date from about 1810, when the Old Stable block was converted into a chapel – at Mass the choir sang from the hayloft! A copy of Vincent Novello's Collection of Sacred Music, published by W. Galloway in 1811, dates from this time, as the subscription list proves. It contains the following names: [13] FN

Marmaduke Stone (President 1790-1808)  2 copies
John Weld ( President 1813-16, son of Thomas Weld)  1 copy
Charles Wright (Procurator 1794-1827)  2 copies
Charles Brooke (Prefect of Studies)  1 copy
Thomas Wright (brother of Charles Wright
and Stonyhurst's London banker)
 1 copy
Thomas Weld (almost certainly for Lulworth chapel)  3 copies

This shows that Stonyhurst was alert to the full implications of Novello's publishing activities, especially as regards Mozart and Haydn. Further evidence of this surfaces in an 1826 copy of Mozart's Requiem, edited and published by Anton and Joseph André using manuscripts purchased from Mozart's widow in 1800. [14] It is the first full score printed edition and the subscription list has only six English purchases in it, all by R. Crooks, a bookseller of London. Crooks's stamp proves that the Stonyhurst copy is one of these. Mozart's Requiem, then, in part came to England through Stonyhurst; and it is interesting to observe that Richard Norris was rector in 1827-32, at about the same time. FN

The biggest surge, however, seems to have come after the consecration of the Great Church in 1835, as the purchase of numerous engraved Novello editions at half-price shows. [15] It therefore seems likely that Stonyhurst took advantage of the effects of J. A. Novello's introduction of his 'Cheap Musical Classics' series from 1849 onwards to get such editions more cheaply. There is also a manuscript volume containing 52 works prepared by the College organist, John Beresford, in August 1846. [16] It was at this time, also from 1849, that William Maxwell's sons started to arrive at the College. However, the presence of Norris at the consecration of St. Everilda's shows that the connection goes back much further. Indeed, St. Everilda's was begun in 1835, the same year that the Great Church at Stonyhurst was consecrated; so it is possible to speculate that it was inspired by it. FN

It is obvious, then, that Stonyhurst's musical practice is likely to have exerted a direct influence on Everingham. The presence of numerous Vincent Novello editions is one symptom. Indeed, a set of Vincent Novello's Mozart Masses was bought and signed 'William Constable Maxwell' in 1839, the year of the consecration. [17] A complete set of Novello's Haydn Masses was also obtained a few years later. These were specially bound and stamped 'M. C. Maxwell' in gold. Several loose copies of some of these masses also survive, some of which, like those at Stonyhurst, were bought at reduced prices. [18] One of these, Haydn's Mass No. 3, is signed 'William C. Maxwell November, 1844'. Pencil markings in the Gloria show that he was a bass and therefore a member of the choir. FN

Such connections were maintained throughout the century. Like their father, Marmaduke and his brother Joseph Constable Maxwell were singers; and there survives at Stonyhurst an enormous volume of part songs stamped 'J. C. Maxwell'. [19] In 1894 Marmaduke presided over Stonyhurst's bicentenary festivities. The Everingham collection holds a copy of St. Winifrid's Hymn Book, compiled in the middle of the century by Jesuit students of St. Buenos College, North Wales. There is also a large set of Mission Hymns prepared for retreats given at Everingham in 1886 and 1899 by Fr Bernard Vaughan and Fr John Gerard respectively. Both were alumni and teachers at Stonyhurst. Bernard Vaughan, brother of Cardinal Vaughan, went on to become the most celebrated English Jesuit preacher of the age. Gerard was Prefect of Studies at the College, and the author of its history, the Stonyhurst Centenary Record, produced in 1894; and he went on to become the English Jesuit Provincial. [20] FN

Other Connections

Links with Stonyhurst, however, do not constitute the whole story. For a start, Marmaduke Constable Maxwell's wife Marcia, the daughter of Edward, Lord Howard of Glossop, was herself a keen musician, as a number of dedicatory pieces attest. They were married in 1875 at the London Oratory; and there survives in the collection a Benediction Service and a Collection of 36 Litanies with Organ accompaniment, Opus 30 published in 1861 and dedicated to Frederick William Faber, the founder of the London Oratory, by William Schulthes, the director of music there. [21] Indeed, it is possible that the late nineteenth-century change in style mentioned earlier may be connected with Marcia's arrival at Everingham. Her daughter, Gwendoline Mary C. Maxwell married her relative Henry Howard, Fifteenth Duke of Norfolk, at St. Everilda's on February 15th, 1904. [22] Apart from anything else this was an alliance of musical interests; for, in collaboration with Charles Gatty, Howard was responsible for the production, between 1898-1905, of Arundel Hymns, five copies of which survive at Everingham. Up until the early 1920s this was also the standard hymnal at Stonyhurst. As a hymnal it is strongly infused with the spirit of the London Oratory as articulated by Faber. [23] FN

Such aristocratic connections reveal the influence of the fashionable London Catholic scene. In the early nineteenth century, as Webbe's and Vincent Novello's publications attest, this had been focussed on the embassy chapels. Later they were superseded by the big fashionable London churches, of whom the Oratory and the Jesuit church at Farm Street were the most important as far as the Maxwell family were concerned. [24] Everingham and Stonyhurst are thus, in a sense, examples of the export of this culture to the provinces. However, if the focus is widened to encompass the whole Continent, a different perspective emerges. In the eighteenth century the English Catholic aristocracy were educated abroad at St. Omers, Bruges or Liège colleges, the ancestors of Stonyhurst. They then went on the Grand Tour, and the Plowden correspondence at Farm Street shows that – as far as Thomas Weld, the donor of Stonyhurst, was concerned – this involved a certain amount of controlled religious guidance while he was staying in Rome. English Catholic families then picked up a Catholic musical culture direct from its sources which was then sustained through contact with the London embassy chapels. The English Jesuit migration to Lancashire altered this. English Catholic aristocrats now received a Continental musical experience at second hand through Stonyhurst, rather than directly 'from the horse's mouth'. However, after leaving school they could still travel to the Continent and in this sense complete their education. This is what Marmaduke and Marcia Maxwell seem to have done. In the Everingham collection there are several works by the French Jesuit Composer and Plainchant expert Fr Louis Lambillotte. They were all bought from shops in Paris. [25] In the chapel itself there is also a special testimonial recording the audience Marmaduke and William Maxwell had with the Pope in 1866. FN

These facts, when combined with the influence of the Oratory, of the Counter Reformation spirit of the Jesuits, and the Italianate design of the church, show a strong Romanizing tendency in keeping with the Ultramontane spirit breathed by Cardinal Wiseman and other members of the late nineteenth-century English Catholic hierarchy, especially Robert Cornithwaite, consecrated Bishop of Beverley in 1861, in whose see Everingham lay. [26] In terms of music this involved a campaign to make Gregorian chant, and next to it Renaissance Polyphony, the dominant styles at the expense of Viennese masters like Haydn and Mozart. In 1873 these objectives were clearly articulated in the Fourth Provincial Synod of Westminster. [27] In 1903 they received official Papal sanction in the form of Pius X's 'Motu Proprio' decree Tra Le Sollectudini. [28] An important question, then, is the extent to which this was carried out at Everingham, especially given the change of style from the 1870s onwards that has already been noted. FN

With Plainchant the evidence is mixed. As has already been observed, it was used during the consecration festivities. Novello's Twelve Easy Masses, of which there are three copies, contains the 'Missa De Angelis', 'Dumont's Mass', 'The Roman Mass' and 'The Gregorian Mass for the Dead'. There are two copies of the Vesper Psalter by the great plainchant expert John Lambert, published by Burns and Oates in 1849. Five copies of its successor, The Choir Manual, also survive. [29] Clearly, Gregorian chant was used; but there is no surviving evidence in the nineteenth century for the work of Solesmes. Only in the late 1930s does this surface, with the purchase of numerous cards of Cary edition Mass settings based on the Vatican Typical Editions. [30] There is also a single 1934 Solesmes edition of the Liber Usualis. FN

A similar pattern appears with Renaissance Polyphony. Once again from the start there is evidence of interest. In the collection there are two issues of Vincent Novello's Periodical Collection of Sacred Music Selected from the best masters of the German and Italian schools. [31] The first of these, signed by William Maxwell in 1845, has an extra inscription – Music for Holy Week as used at the Sistine Chapel in Rome. This is clear evidence that the introduction of Renaissance music was part of the Ultramontane Romanizing campaign associated with Cardinal Wiseman. In addition, although there is now no surviving copy in the collection, the subscription list shows that William Maxwell, along with Henry, 11th Lord Arundell of Wardour Castle, bought copies of J. M. Capes's and Vincent Novello's Selection from the works of Palestrina, the Prince of Music. [32] Once again, though, there is little sign that this was followed up in the 1900s. There are no copies of the Downside Masses and only one – a single copy of Palestrina's 'O Bone Jesu' – from the Downside Motets edited by Richard Terry for Carys. [33] Carys also published numerous other Renaissance polyphonic works in their Motets, Ancient and Modern series at about the same time. None of them appear at Everingham. In fact, only one other publication of this type – an undated copy of Palestrina's Alma Redemptoris Mater by London and Glasgow Church Music – may belong to this period. [34] FN

This pattern is rather different from what happened at Stonyhurst. With Plainchant and Renaissance Polyphony, it is true, things began in the same way with purchases and copying showing a modest but continuing interest. A spectacular instance is the manuscript copy of the Vesperale Romanum arranged with a three stave full organ accompaniment by the organist, Edwin Sircom, in 1870. Later, in 1893, at least three copies of The Popular Choir Manual were purchased for the 'Stonyhurst Congregational Choir'. Similarly there are some items of Renaissance Polyphony in what is described as Score Book No. 3, copied in a mid-nineteenth-century hand. It is in the 1900s that differences appear. Stonyhurst responded to the Papal decrees by purchasing copies of Pothier's Les Mélodies Grégoriènnes, Schwann editions of the Kyriale (1906) based on the Vatican Typical edition, an Epitome E Graduali published by Pustet in 1911, also based on the Vatican Typical edition, and the Liber Antiphonarius published by the Vatican Press in 1912. [35] At the same time steps were taken to increase the amount of Renaissance Polyphony in the major services, although this still remained rather limited, as reports in the Stonyhurst Magazine indicate [see Table VII]. The very fact though that these reports start to be made from May 1906, immediately after Holy Week and three years after Pius X's decree, shows that the authorities felt they had to advertise what they were doing to ecclesiastical authority. Moreover, in 1904 the diocese of Salford, in which Stonyhurst lay, had published its official List of Church Music, incorporating full lists of Solesmes Gregorian chant editions along with numerous works by Renaissance Polyphonists and their St. Cecilia Society imitators. Similar lists were published from 1906 onwards by, amongst others, the Archdioceses of Liverpool and Westminster. [36] Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the acquisition of Vesperale – consisting almost entirely of Renaissance Polyphonic works – and the production of the Stonyhurst Cantionale, complete with plainchant extracts from the Solesmes editions of the Kyriale at the back – both prepared by John Driscoll – shows yet more determined efforts to conform with Papal standards. [37] FN

Thus a clear divergence between Everingham and Stonyhurst occurs in the 1900s although, at least with plainchant, the connection was restored in the 1930s. Despite their parade of Roman loyalty the Maxwells do not seem to fully embraced the plainchant and Renaissance polyphonic implications of Ultramontanism; it is also interesting to observe the survival of several non-musical liturgical books from the early and middle parts of the nineteenth century equipped with English texts, something that the Catholic hierarchy discountenanced after 1850. [38] On the other hand the divergence may simply have arisen because, by the end of the century, the Maxwell interest at Everingham was in decline. Gwendoline's marriage to the Duke of Norfolk in 1904 was a watershed. Marmaduke Maxwell left no sons, so the property fell to the Howard family, whose centre of gravity was in the South, although frequent visits were undertaken by the fifteenth duke. Moreover, by 1900 the transition in the English Catholic Church from rural aristocratic household chapels to large industrial parishes had been more or less completed. The great days of Everingham as a religious musical centre, then, belong to the middle and late nineteenth centuries. The relative paucity of material that follows shows that the twentieth century represents a rather disappointing coda. [39] FN


[1] Gill Hodgson, St. Mary and St. Everilda (Parish History 1839-1989) (Everingham, 1988) citing the report in the 'York Courant' July 18th, 1839. Back

[2] Ibid. n.p. Back

[3] Ibid. n.p. See also Sir James Balfour, The Scots Peerage (Edinburgh, 1907), Vol. IV: 398-424. For obituraries of members of the family see the Stonyhurst Magazine Vol. 8: 433; Vol. 17: 38; Vol. 18: 307; and Vol. 25: 205. Back

[4] See 'The Opening of the New Catholic Church at Everingham' in Catholic Magazine Vol. III (1839-40) No. XXXI (August): 567-72. A similar set of reports can be found in Orthodox Journal Vol. IX (1839): 65-70. Back

[5] Anon., The Popular Choir Manual: A Complete Collection of Music for the Course of the Ecclesiastical Year (London, Burns, Oates and Co., n.d.). S. Webbe (the elder), A Collection of Sacred Music as used in the Chapel of the King of Sardinia in London (no publication details but elsewhere 1785 has been given as the date of publication). A Collection of Motets or antiphons for 1,2,3, and 4 voices or choruses calculated for the more solemn parts of Divine Worship (London, J. Jones, n.d. but otherwise known to have been published in 1792). G. Gordon, A Collection of Sacred Music calculated for the use of small choirs consisting of Masses, Hymns, Anthems (Edinburgh, no date or publisher supplied). Signed by William Maxwell in 1839, the year of St. Everilda's consecration. This reflects the Maxwells' Scottish background. Back

[6] New and Corrected Edition of Dr Camidge's Chants as used in York Cathedral (London and Preston, signed by Camidge but otherwise no other publication data).

[7] See for example the seven copies of Cary, Alphonse, Mass of St. Francis (No. 4 in F) (London, Cary and Co., n.d.), as opposed to four copies of Mgr. Crookall, ed. A. E. Tozer, Ave Verum (London, Cary and Co. Motets Ancient and Modern series, n.d.). Back

[8] See for example the 12 copies of J. E. Turner, Mass of St. John the Baptist (London, Cary and Co., n.d.); 5 copies of Gounod, C., Messe a deux voix égales (Paris, Le Beau, n.d.), possibly purchased for the convent; 3 copies of A. E. Tozer, First Short Mass in A flat (London and Regensburg, Cary and Co., n.d.); and 4 copies of R. A. Terry, Short and Easy Mass on the theme 'Veni Sancte Spiritus' (No. 3) (London, Cary and Co., 1904). Back

[9] The Library did not get to the College until 1837. See T. E. Muir, Stonyhurst College: 1593-1993 (London, 1993), p. 32.

[10] Ibid. for a modern history of Stonyhurst Statistics, together with some discussion of the size of the school in the nineteenth century on pp. 10, 81, 86, 89, 95, 96, 124 and 125. Back

[11] For example, the Stonyhurst Magazine, describing the solemn Requiem for Nicholas O'Conor on March 28th, 1908, refers to the choir, a 'Vesper Choir' and some seminarians singing in the stalls by the High Altar. 'Music Notes' Vol. XI, No. 157: 34-5. In addition the music department holds several volumes marked 'Stonyhurst Congregational Choir' including a bound anthology of Masses edited by Vincent Novello assembled between 1849-50.

[12] Muir, Stonyhurst College: 73-6, 90-1. Photographs pp. 88-9.

[13] Other names with a Stonyhurst connection are Fr. D. Rigby, Robert Clifford and Edward Petre. The local Catholic landowner John Townley of Burnley also subscribed to a copy. Back

[14] W. A. Mozart, ed. Anton André, Requiem. Back

[15] See, for example, engraved copies of V. Novello, Mass in D, sold at half price for 4/6d; two Casali Masses (Mass for Treble, Alto and Bass and Mass in F, both edited by V. Novello) sold at 4/- apiece; and a New Edition of Novello's Masses for Four Voices sold for 7/6 instead of 12/-. All these are bound together in a volume marked 'Stonyhurst Choir Congregation', the first dated April, 1849, the others Oct. 3rd, 1850.

[16] The precise date given is August 10th, 1846; however, notes at the bottom of some items show that many of the arrangements and compositions date from 1840-1. Interestingly enough there is also a copy at Stonyhurst of his Laudate Dominum (London, J. A. Novello, n.d.). Dedicated to Lord Arundell of Wardour. Back

[17] W. A. Mozart, arr. V. Novello, Mozart's Mass with an accompaniment for the Organ arranged from the full score by Vincent Novello (London, W. Galloway, n.d.). These are bound into two volumes. Vol. 1 holds Masses No. 1,2,4,5,7,8 and 9; Vol. 2 holds Masses No. 10,12, 15, 16, 17, and 18.

[18] These appear as A New and Improved Edition of Haydn's Masses for four voices with a separate accompaniment for the Organ or Pianoforte arranged from the full score by Vincent Novello, organist to the Royal Portuguese Embassy (London, J. A. Novello, n.d.). Novello's facsimile signature is given at the bottom of each Mass. These copies were purchased locally from J. Robinson's Music Warehouse, 38 The Stonegate, York. Back

[19] This is entitled 'Songs, Glees etc'. For Marmaduke's part in the 1894 celebrations see the Stonyhurst Magazine Vol. V, No. 76 (Sept. 1894): 384. His portrait, and that of his father, were part of a retrospective exhibition held on that occasion (Vol. V. No. 76: 379).

[20] J. Gerard, The Stonyhurst Centenary Record (London, 1894). Back

[21] Hodgson, St. Mary and St. Everilda, n.p., W. Schulthes, Benediction Service and a Collection of 36 Litanies with Organ accompaniment, Opus 30 (London, 1861). See also arr. William Pitts (another organist at the London Oratory), One Hundred and Thirteen Oratory Litanies (London, Novello, Ewer and Co., n.d.). This copy was bought in South Kensington (near the Oratory) and given to Angela Maxwell in 1887 by 'H. J. H.'.

[22] Hodgson, ibid., n.p.

[23] Ed. Charles Gatty and Henry, Duke of Norfolk, Arundel Hymns Part 1 (London, Boosey and The Catholic Truth Society, 1898). The words-only version dates from 1901. The hymnal not only contains 64 Faber texts; it is also structured in a similar fashion to Faber's hymnal Jesus and Mary, or Catholic Hymns for singing and reading (London, Dublin and Derby, 1849 & 1852), which was also dedicated to the Howard family. Two copies of the 1859 version, known as Oratory Hymns (London, Burns and Oates, n.d.) can be found in the Everingham collection. For its replacement at Stonyhurst see 'Music Notes' in the Stonyhurst Magazine Vol XV, No. 229, Oct. 1920: 272. Back

[24] See for example the copy of Litany Chants as used at the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Farm Street, London (London, Lambert and Co., n.d.).

[25] See for example Fr Louis Lambillotte, Salut pour le jour de l'Immaculée Concéption (Paris, Nicou-Choron et cie, n.d., but bearing the stamp of a Paris shop). Back

[26] Jenifer F. Supple, 'Ultramontanism in Yorkshire, 1850-1900', Recusant History 17/3 (1984-5): 274-86. Bishop Richard Lacy, Cornithwaite's successor in the Middlesbrough diocese, to which Everingham was transferred, was equally Ultramontane.

[27] Arranged by Guy, Robert, under the supervision of Bishop Cuthbert Hedley, The Synods in English being the Text of the Four Synods in English translated into English (Stratford on Avon, St Gregory's Press, 1886), 185-195.

[28] For a translation see R. Terry, The Music of the Roman Rite (London, 1931), Appendix B: 253-69. Back

[29] V. Novello, Twelve Easy Masses calculated for Small Choirs including the Gregorian Masses, De Anglelis, Dumont's and Pro Defunctis (London, J. Novello, n.d.), 3 vols. There is an introduction by Vincent Novello, dated 1816 and a dedication to James Everard, Lord Arundell, the donor of the Arundell library to Stonyhurst. J. Lambert, The Vesper Psalter: Organ Accompaniments containing the Eight Psalm Tones with their Festal and Ferial Mediations and their various endings: also the entire plain chant of Vespers for Sunday and the Office of Compline, the Common Commemorations and the Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin with a Preface on the true method of harmonising and singing the ritual song (London, James Burns, 1849).

[30] These consist of the Masses Cum Jubilo, Lux et Origo, Rex Splendens, Fons Bonitatis, Orbis Factor, De Angelis along with settings of Vidi Aquam and two versions of Asperges Me. All except the Missa De Angelis (1931) and its Credo III (1934) were published in 1936. Back

[31] Both were published in London by J. A. Novello (n.d.). There are two copies of the second issue, containing works by Palestrina and Allegri, at Everingham.

[32] Published in London by J. A. Novello (n.d.). A copy survives in the Ushaw College Music Room.

[33] G. P. Palestrina, ed. R. Terry, O Bone Jesu (London, Cary and Co. 'Downside Motets' series Vol. 1, No. 11, n.d.).

[34] This is No. 4 in their series 'Latin Church Music'. Back

[35] A note inside the Stonyhurst copy of Les Mélodies Grégoriènnes shows that it was purchased by Edmund G Dignam in 1904, although it had been published by Desclee of Tournai in 1881. This confirms the impression that Stonyhurst paid little attention to Solesmes research until compelled to react by Papal fiat.

[36] Diocese of Salford, Epsicopal Commission on Ecclesiastical Music: List of Church Music (Salford, printed by J. Roberts and Sons, 1904). See also the first List of Approved Church Music for the Archdiocese of Westminster (London, Burns and Oates, 1906). Copies of several other examples can be found in the Westminster Diocesan Archives. Bourne Papers. Box 1/87, music of the church 1904-10.

[37] Ed. J. Driscoll, Vesperalia: Vespers and Compline for Sundays and Chief Feasts arranged by J. Driscoll S. J. (London, Church of th Sacred Heart, Wimbledon, 1915). Stonyhurst holds 24 copies. Although published in 1915, according to the Stonyhurst Magazine (Vol. 15: No. 279 Oct. 1920: 272) what is referred to as Driscoll's 'Stonyhurst Cantionale' was not introduced till 1920. See also J. Driscoll, ed., The Stonyhurst Cantionale (London, Roehampton, Manresa Press, 1937). However the Organ copy, dated 1936, has an introduction by Driscoll dated 1940 stating that it was not printed till after the outbreak of the War. Back

[38] See for example an anonymous Vesper Book, published by Burns and Lambert in 1850 and reissued in 1859 with English translations alongside the Latin text. Examples of both editions survive at Everingham; the latter was presented by Marmaduke Maxwell to his sister Marcia, who became a nun, on October 4th, 1877!

[39] Apart from three manuscript items only 17 post-1914 musical publications survive in the Everingham Collection. Back

© Thomas Muir, 2002

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